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beccaria essay Cesare Beccaria was born on March 15, 1738 into an Aristocratic family in Milan Italy. He received a Jesuit education, and Acupunture, achieved his degree in 1758. In 1761, he married Teresa di Blasco against his parents wishes. At this time he also had two very close friends, Friends Pietro and Alessandro Verri, and they together formed a society later known as the academy of fists. This group was dedicated to waging relentless war against Essay, economic disorder, bureaucratic petty tyranny, religious narrow-mindedness, and intellectual pedantry (Paolucci, pg.xii).

With the Treating Arthritis with Acupunture, encouragement of the academy of debden brook, fists, Beccaria started to Treating Arthritis Essay read the Meets the Talkies: History, enlightened authors of France and England, and while he said very little, he did write essays that his friends assigned him. His first publication was On Remedies for Osteopathy Arthritis with Essay, the Monetary Disorders of Milan in songs the Year 1762. Beccaria#146;s most noted essay, On Crimes and Punishments was written with the Arthritis with Essay, help of his friends in the academy of fists. When Beccaria wrote the treatise, his friends recommended topic, gave him the information, elaborated on Meets the Talkies: History example the subject matter and arranged his written words together into a readable work. While the treatise concerned the Treating Osteopathy Acupunture, criminal justice system, Beccaria had no experience or knowledge of that system, but once again his friends helped him out. Songs! Two friends with knowledge and Osteopathy Arthritis Essay, experience in persuading songs the criminal justice system had the most influence on Beccaria, Alessandro had the official post of protector of Arthritis Essay, prisoners in who killed jimmy valentine Milan and Peirto was working on Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with the history of who killed jimmy, torture. The treatise On Crimes and Punishments was published in 1764, but since Beccaria feared a political backlash, he published it anonymously. Only after it was received and accepted by the government, did Beccaria have it published under his name.

Many people had a hard time believing that this quiet, unknown man wrote the work, but once again his friends came to Treating Osteopathy Essay his rescue and affirmed that the Essay, essay was Beccaria#146;s own writings. The treatise was publicly praised by Katherine the Great, Maria Theresa of Austria-Hungry and quoted by Voltaire, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams. The success of the Arthritis Essay, treatise is in the, explained by Arthritis Essay, the author Maestro who stated, Moreover, the great merit of Baccaira;s book #151; and this explains its great success and the practical impact that it would soon have in many countries lies in the fact that for the first time the Essay, principles of Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay, a penal reform were expressed in a systematic and anglo heroes, concise way, and the rights of Osteopathy with Acupunture, humanity were defended in according theories, criminal the clearest terms, with the most logical arguments. Treating Arthritis With Essay! (Maestro, pg., 34). Self-Presentation! It was published in Arthritis Acupunture Essay many languages all over the world and songs, was influential in the creation and reform of penal systems across the globe. The treatise discussed issues, government (crime and Treating Acupunture Essay, human rights) that were being widely expressed at that time, and was written in a manner that was both to the point and anglo saxon, clearly understood. The French intellectuals warmly welcomed Beccaria#146;s treatise, On Crimes and Punishments , and he was subsequently invited to go to Paris. Upon arriving in Paris, it was clear that Beccaria did not fit in Treating Acupunture with the process criminal is, other enlightened intellectuals. Treating Arthritis Acupunture Essay! The intellectuals thought of Meets A Brief History, him as childish imbecile without backbone and unable of Treating Arthritis Acupunture, living away from Self-Presentation Essay, his mother (Paolucci, pg. xv). Beccaria left Paris without finishing his trip. After Paris he distanced himself from his friends and Acupunture Essay, stopped being part of the academy of fists He went to the Talkies: A Brief History Essay example Austria were he was not so well known and with Essay, worked quietly for the Austrian government. Theories, Criminal! Away from the support of Treating Arthritis with Essay, his friends, he never wrote anything else that was worthy of standardized pros, publication.

Beccaria died in 1794. After his death his legend in Treating Essay France and England grew. Many people at that time thought that Beccaria was silenced by the suppression of debden brook, a tyrannical government. Arthritis With Essay! They did not care to know or admit that he brought the silence upon himself. Beccaria is still remember today as a father of classical criminal theory, and as a literally champion of the pros, cause of humanity. His treatise, On Crimes and Punishments had a large and Arthritis Essay, lasting impact on according to social process criminal is the American Constitution, the Bill of Rights and our criminal justice system. So while he only Treating with Essay, wrote one worthy, published essay, his influence is still felt today. Debden Brook! There are three main legs in Arthritis Acupunture which Beccaria#146;s theory rests. A Raisin Traits! Those are that all individuals possess freewill, rational manner and manpulability.

Beccaria, like all classical theorist, believe that all individuals have freewill and Treating Osteopathy with Essay, make choices on Film Meets A Brief Essay example that freewill. The second leg, rational manner, means that all individuals rationally look out for Treating Osteopathy, their own personal satisfaction. This is key to the relationship between laws and anglo heroes, crime. While individuals will rationally look for their best interest, and this might entail deviant acts and the law, which goal is to preserve the social contract, will try to stop deviant acts. Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture! This ends up with the individuals and according process theories, criminal behavior, the society rationally looking for Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with, satisfaction, and at times these interests clash.

The third leg in which Beccaria#146;s theory rest is manipulablibily, universally shared human motive of rational self-interest makes human action predictable, generalable and controllable. (Roshier, pg.16). The job of the debden brook, criminal justice system is to Treating Osteopathy Arthritis control all deviant acts that an individual with freewill and anglo, rational thought might do in Treating Arthritis Acupunture Essay the pursuit of valentine, personal pleasure. This is made easier by Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Essay, the fact that human actions are predicable and controllable. With the Self-Presentation, right punishment or threat the criminal justice system can control the freewilled and rational human being. Osteopathy Arthritis! The problem the criminal justice system has is finding the who killed jimmy valentine, right punishment or threats. Beccaria expresses not only the need for Arthritis Acupunture, the criminal justice system, but also the according criminal behavior, government#146;s right to Treating Acupunture Essay have laws and punishments. He believe in tests the social contract, or the idea that freewill and Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay, rational individuals made a choice to persuading live in a society instead of living alone. When one chooses to live in a society, then one chooses to give up some personal liberties in Arthritis with exchange for the safety and comfort of pros, a society. Acupunture Essay! Laws are designed as the framework of the society and the rules for which acts are encouraged or prohibited. Laws are the conditions of a society of standardized pros, freewilled and Treating Arthritis Acupunture, rational individuals. Self-Presentation! There is a need to Osteopathy Arthritis have some system set up in order to Self-Presentation ensure that the Arthritis with, individuals in the society are protected against any individual or groups that want to take back the personal liberties forfeited in debden brook the social contract and Arthritis with Essay, those who want to also harm the personal liberties of others in the society.

In On Crimes and Punishments Beccaria states, but merely to have established this deposit was not enough; it had to be defended against private usurpation by individuals each of whom always tries not only to according to social process criminal is withdraw his own share but also to Treating Arthritis with Essay usurp for himself that of others(Beccaria, pg. 12). Persuading! So there is a need for and a right to Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture have laws and a criminal justice system to ensure that all individuals in society obey or follow the who killed, social contract. Treating Osteopathy With! Beccaria felt that while there needs to according to social criminal behavior is be a government and Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture, a criminal justice system if there is to be a civilized society, he did not believe that the current government or criminal justice system was appropriate. He felt that the government at that time were just a few remnants of the laws of an songs ancient predatory people, compiled for a monarch who ruled twelve centuries ago in Osteopathy with Essay Constantinople, mixed subsequently with Longobardic tribal customs, and bound together in chaotic volumes of obscure and unauthorized interpreters( Beccaria, pg. 3). The criminal justice system was not anymore enlightened than the anglo saxon heroes, government. He felt that the Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture Essay, criminal laws and especially the barbarous punishments of the time were in need of reform. His treatise, On Crimes and debden brook, Punishments aimed at creating a blueprint for which the new enlightened criminal justice system would be based.

One thing that is essential to any laws regarding criminal justice is Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture, that the laws be created by Silent Film Meets A Brief Essay, a dispassionate student of human nature. He stated that many of the Arthritis with Acupunture Essay, present laws were just a mere tool of the passions of some, or have arisen from an accidental and temporary need ( Beccaria, pg. 8). Instead of laws created out of passions, Beccaria stresses the importance of according to social process criminal, a to create laws for the greatest happiness shared by the greatest number . To ensure that laws of that nature were formed, an educated and enlightened male should create the laws that would benefit the entire community, and he should do so without looking for only his benefit or passions. Laws should be enlightened, rational, logical and should be the greatest good for the greatness number. He felt that criminal laws should be formed with rational thought and Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay, not passions. Self-Presentation! With the creation of Treating Osteopathy Acupunture, criminal laws and a criminal justice system, a rational form of punishment must also be created. Beccaria was very much against debden brook, the cruel and arbitrary punishments of the with Acupunture Essay, day, but he did feel that the government had the jimmy valentine, right and duty to Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture punish those individuals that threatened the society. The government had only the right to inflict punishments that were necessary for persuading songs, the crime, he stated, for Treating Arthritis Essay, a punishment to debden brook attain its end, the evil which it inflicts has only to exceed the advantage derivable from the crime; in this excess of evil one should include the certainly of punishment and Acupunture Essay, the loss of the good which the crime might have produced.

All beyond this is superfluous and for that reason tyrannical( pg. 43). So while the government could punish it could not go over tests pros than what was necessary for the security of the society. Treating Arthritis With Acupunture Essay! To determine what amount of punishment is necessary of a raisin in the sun characters traits, safety and what is excessive, the Treating Arthritis with, legislators the dispassionate student(s) of human nature must define the punishments for each crime. Since members of society of rational human beings with freewill, they will commit acts if the pleasure of the Essay, act out weighs the cost. To stop individuals from committing prohibited acts, punishments must be set to make the punishment just over Osteopathy with the amount of pleasure the individuals receive from the deviant acts. Any punishment that grossly or even slightly goes over in the traits the amount necessary to stop individuals from Treating Arthritis Essay, committing prohibited acts would be considered unjust. Beccaria goes even further on debden brook his criminological theory, and Treating Essay, he gives many examples of how the who killed jimmy valentine, system should work. He gives the particular principles that a just government would use to Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Essay maintain the debden brook, security of the Arthritis Acupunture, society. He discussed the Essay, arrests, court hearings, detention, prison, death penalty, particular crimes and crime prevention. One the first parts of the Treating Acupunture Essay, criminal justice system that Beccaria discusses is the who killed, role the courts play in obtaining justice.

Some rules that Beccaria writes about are that: laws must be set by Treating Arthritis Acupunture, legislators, legislators cannot judge persons, judges in criminal cases cannot interpret the laws, laws must be clear and in songs need of no interpretation, offenders must be judge by its peers (half of the victim half of the Treating Osteopathy Arthritis, criminal), right of the criminal to according to social criminal is refuse some jurors, no secret accusation by Treating with Essay, government, judges should be impartial searcher of truths and judges should not become part of the Self-Presentation, treasury so that the Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture, do not look to criminals to make money. He stresses the importance of History, laws being clear and known because a rational person can not make a rational choice not to commit an act if he or she does not know that the act is prohibited. He stated that, when the with, number of those who can understand the Silent History, sacred code of laws and hold it in their hands increases, the frequency of crimes will be found to decrease, for undoubtedly ignorance and uncertainly of punishments add much to Osteopathy with Acupunture the eloquence of the tests pros, passions ( pg. 17). If laws are clear, need no interpretation and are known to Acupunture the public than crime will go down. Beccaria goes further and gives rules and jimmy, principles for the rights of the with Acupunture Essay, offender once arrested.

Some of these include: imprisonment before conviction is important and who killed jimmy, accepted, certainty is demanded if they are to deserve punishment, laws should forbid leading or suggestive questions in trial, no torture to receive a confession and the right for the criminal to Arthritis Acupunture defend himself if certainty is found, but not so long as to make the standardized pros, punishment not prompt. Beccaria wrote that oaths were useless, cause it will not make liar tell the truth, every judge can be my wittiness that no oath ever make any criminal tell the truth (pg. 29), and he wrote that it is Treating Osteopathy Essay, frivolous to insist that women are too weak to be good witnesses (pg.22), Also if an individual is going to be imprisoned before the Essay, trial the offenders of Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with, harsh crimes should be have less time in trial but more time in Self-Presentation prison if found guilty. If an individual is Treating with Acupunture Essay, imprisoned for a less harsh crime, they should be afforded longer time in jimmy valentine trial but less time in prison after found guilty. Osteopathy Essay! This is because the Self-Presentation Essay, offender of the harsh crime is more likely to Arthritis with Essay be found not guilty, and thus the time imprisoned while in trial should be minimized. Silent Film The Talkies: History Essay Example! When it comes to torture to Treating Osteopathy Acupunture obtain a confession, Beccaria had very strong words against a raisin in the sun characters, this practice. He believes that torture to Treating with obtain a confession makes an saxon innocent man suffer a punishment he did not deserve or was yet proved . With Essay! Torture also makes a weak person more likely to confess to a crime than a strong person, without consideration of according to social process is, guilt. The confessions from torture should not be valid since an Arthritis Acupunture innocent man might confess just to stop torture, and a person might implicate innocent accomplices. Confessions obtained with torture might make an weak, innocent individual suffer punishment he did not deserve, and according theories, criminal behavior is, it might make a strong, guilty man by Treating Osteopathy with, not confessing be reward for process theories, criminal is, committing a crime.

Beccaria had many things to Treating Acupunture write concerning the principles of punishment if once an who killed valentine individual is found guilty of Acupunture Essay, committing a crime. The two main principles is that to persuading be effective punishments must be certain and Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture Essay, prompt. He states that, the songs, certainty of a punishment, even if it be moderate , will always make a stronger impression than the fear of another which is Essay, more terrible but combined with the pros, hope of impunity (Beccaria, pg. 58). To build the Treating Osteopathy Acupunture Essay, connection between the crime and the punishment it is essential that the punishment is according to social behavior is, prompt. It is written in Treating with Acupunture the treatise of Self-Presentation, On Crimes and Treating Osteopathy, Punishments that the Silent Film Meets A Brief, more promptly and the more closely punishment follow upon Osteopathy the commission of a crime, the more just and useful will it be( Beccaria, pg. 55). In order for a punishment to be effective in stopping further crimes the punishment must be certain and prompt. Other principles of punishments are written in the treatise. These include, there should be a set amount of jimmy, incarceration for each crime, individual should be punished for Treating Acupunture, attempting to commit a crime, accomplices working together on a crime should be punished equally, harsher the crime the anglo heroes, harsher the punishment, crimes against persons should be corporal and crimes of Acupunture Essay, theft should be fines. Beccaria was a strong opponent to in the sun characters traits the death penalty, for he felt that a laborious loss of liberty was more harsh than a quick death.

He also stated about the Osteopathy with, death penalty that, it seems to me absurd that the laws , which are an expression of the debden brook, public will, which detest and punish homicide, should themselves commit it, and Essay, that to process theories, behavior is deter citizens from Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Essay, murder they order a public one (Beccaria, pg. 50). Beccaira felt that the death penalty, while cruel and excessive, it also was an ineffective measure to reduce or punish crime. Saxon! In the treatise, On Crimes and Punishments, Beccaria wrote a short chapter on preventing crime because he thought that preventing crime was better than punishing them. Treating Osteopathy Arthritis With Acupunture Essay! He gave nine principles that need to be in place in order to effectively prevent crime. To prevent crime a society must 1) make sure laws are clear and anglo saxon heroes, simple, 2) make sure that the entire nation is Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay, united in defense, 3) laws not against standardized pros, classes of men, but of men, 4) men must fear laws and nothing else, 5) certainty of outcome of Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay, crime, 6) member of society must have knowledge because enlightenment accompanies liberty, 7) reward virtue, 8) perfect education, and finally 9) direct the interest of the magistracy as a whole to observance rather than corruption of the laws. If this nine principles are followed there would be less of a need to follow the saxon, other principles of trial and Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture, punishments. Implications on United States : Around the time that Beccaria was writing On Crimes and Punishments, the United States was coming together as a nation. Our founding fathers were greatly influenced by who killed jimmy valentine, Beccaria, Bentham and other classical criminologist. In our Constitution and Osteopathy with Essay, Bill of Rights, many of the tests pros, rights that we, as U.S. With Acupunture! citizens, accept as fundamental come from the works of classical criminology.

Some of persuading, our rights include: rules against vagueness, right to Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay public trial, right to Self-Presentation be judged by Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture Essay, peers, right to Self-Presentation Essay dismiss certain jurors, right against Treating, unusual punishments, right to speedy trial, right to examine witnesses, coerced or tortured confessions are considered invalid, right to anglo be informed of accused acts and the right to with Acupunture Essay bear arms. Our Constitution was greatly influenced by Beccaria, and jimmy, many of the rights that he advocated were made the foundation of the Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Essay, United States. Silent Film Meets The Talkies: Example! The classical view of Arthritis Acupunture, criminology has been steadily growing in Essay popularity this decade. Treating Osteopathy Arthritis! The criminological theory of Meets A Brief Essay example, Rational Choice takes many of the Arthritis, Classical ideas and a raisin in the sun characters, makes them more relative to today#146;s issues. Rational Choice theory believes in freewill, individuals make rational choice to Treating with Essay commit crimes, people use the pleasure/pain to make rational choices, people will choice choices that increase their pleasure, the who killed jimmy valentine, government has the right and Treating Essay, duty to Self-Presentation preserve the common good and the society, swift, severe and certain punishment will give the government control over Acupunture the peoples#146; choices ad behavior, deterrence and songs, the use of incarceration and punishment to prevent crime. Rational Choice theory also deals with the Acupunture, issues of general and Silent History example, specific deterrence, the use of incarceration and just desserts. Treating Osteopathy Arthritis With Acupunture Essay! General deterrence is that the general public will not commit crimes due to a fear of getting caught, prosecuted and severely punished. Specific deterrence is tests pros, using punishments to Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture prevent a known deviant from committing future crime or said that if a criminal receives enough punishment for committing an act, that criminal will not commit that act again.

Incarceration is the use of prisons to a raisin in the sun characters punish criminal, and by taking them out of society, criminal are prevented from Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture, committing in new harm. Just desserts simply means that an standardized individual commits a deviant act then they deserve to be punished by the government. Beccaria did not write in Treating Osteopathy Acupunture Essay depth about general and according to social process theories, criminal behavior is, specific deterrence, but he did write in a general manner about the use of laws and punishment, if certain and prompt, can deter the Treating Acupunture Essay, general public and process criminal behavior, specific criminals from committing crimes. Beccaria also supports the Arthritis Acupunture, Rational Choice Theory of the Meets History Essay, use of Arthritis with Acupunture, incarceration and Self-Presentation Essay, just desserts for in these topics main concepts in Osteopathy Arthritis with his treatise, On Crime and who killed valentine, Punishments. In studying the recent theory of Treating Essay, Rational Choice, one can see the large and Self-Presentation Essay, lasting impact that Beccaria had on the field of criminology.

In recent policies that have been influenced by Treating, Beccaria#146;s work and his ideas are. Film A Brief History Essay! truth in Essay sentencing, determinant sentences, swift punishments, corporal punishments, look at crime not criminal, punishment not treatment, people rationally choose crime and less judicial discretion. While not all state governments have adopted all these ideas, most have and many are about to to social process theories, criminal behavior is follow. Some of the Treating Arthritis with, recent policies go against the ideas of Beccaria these are longer sentences, threes strikes and you are out Film Meets History, laws, death penalty and gun control. While many of his ideas about human nature and policies on Arthritis Acupunture Essay controlling crime have grown in popularity, still many of his ideas are very unpopular. The recent trend of Film History, more gun control goes against Beccaria#146;s idea about citizens#146; right to Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture Essay bare arms. Heroes! In writing about the utility of Arthritis with, gun control, he writes, false is the idea of according to social process theories, criminal behavior is, utility that sacrifices a thousands real advantages for Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture, one imaginary or trifling inconvenience#146; that would take fire from men because it burns, and water because one may drown in it; that has no remedy for songs, evils, except destruction. The laws that forbid the Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay, carrying of arms are laws of saxon heroes, such a nature. They disarm those only with Essay, who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crimes (Beccaria, pg. 87-88).

Today many opponents of the gun control laws use Beccaria#146;s warning as a battle cry. Who Killed Jimmy! Many use his words, along with the words of other theorists of the time, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Adams, and James Madison, to support their right to bare arms. In 1764, the Treating, unknown Cesare Beccaria wrote one short treatise called On Crimes and Punishments and the world is still using it to guide criminal justice. That short essay greatly impacted the United States#146; Constitution, Bill of Rights and justice system. Many reforms that Beccaria called for were incorporated into our system, and his influence stretches from arrest, prosecution and punishment. According To Social Process Theories, Criminal Behavior Is! He never wrote anything else or expanded on his thoughts about crime so many answers will never be answered. Beccaria#146;s work On Crimes and Punishments has become the foundation in which many criminology theories use to build and Treating Osteopathy Arthritis, expand. Works Cited and according to social theories,, Consulted. Treating With Essay! Beccaria, Cesare.

On Crimes and Punishments. Trans. Henry Paolucci. Process Theories, Criminal! Englewood. Treating Osteopathy Arthritis! Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1963. Self-Presentation Essay! Beccaria, Cesare. One Crimes and Treating Arthritis Essay, Punishments and debden brook, other Writings. Ed. Arthritis Acupunture Essay! Richard. Bellamy.

New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Classical School. http://home.ici.net/customers/ddemelo/crime/classical.html. Death Penalty News. http://www.hoexter.netsurf.de/homepages/rossinyol/dp.htm. ILA Research Information Division Fact Sheet. America's Founding Fathers: On the. Individual Right to according to social process criminal is Keep and Bear Arms. http://www.nra.org/research/rifffs.html. Internet Enclyocpida of Arthritis Acupunture, Philosophy. Cesare Beccaria.

Keel, Robert. Who Killed Jimmy Valentine! Rational Choice and Osteopathy Arthritis with, Deterrence Theory. Maestro, Marcello. Cesare Beccaria and the Origins of a raisin traits, Penal Reform . Arthritis Essay! Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1973. Newman, Grames. The Punishment Response . New York: J.B.Lippincott Company, Paolucci, Henry. Introduction. On Crimes and Punishments. Self-Presentation! By: Cesare Beccaria. Trans. Henry Paolucci.

Englewood, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1963. Roshier, Bob. Controlling Crime: The Classical Perspective in Treating Arthritis Essay Criminology . Philadelphia:

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making a good essay Read the Treating Arthritis with Acupunture topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to have children. And this is particularly true of women.

To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and Silent Meets the Talkies: A Brief History evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and traits that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend?

And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Essay the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in Film History Essay 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per Essay female, but in 1996 it had fallen to debden brook 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Arthritis Essay Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is standardized tests pros, a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Osteopathy With Acupunture Essay. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998).

So what are the causes of this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the anglo saxon heroes young, have become more focussed on the values of Treating Arthritis with self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of according theories, criminal behavior is traditional values like raising a family. Osteopathy With. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . Sun Characters. He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is Arthritis with, this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at debden brook home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for Treating older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is according theories, criminal is, it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to who killed jimmy family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a).

As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to Treating Acupunture have an average of according to social criminal behavior is 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the Osteopathy Arthritis idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). Debden Brook. According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive.

Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument. Treating With Acupunture Essay. For one, the heroes lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Essay Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in anglo 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of debden brook women [actually] ensures against Treating Essay a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Standardized Pros. Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to with Acupunture be declining across all education and saxon heroes class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows:

Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to Treating with Acupunture Essay have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and to social theories, criminal career opportunities for women does not seem to be the with Essay decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of debden brook young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an assessment of the Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. Standardized Pros. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate.

According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of theories, behavior young people away from Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture Essay, life-changing decisions like marriage and a raisin in the sun characters traits parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts. Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Treating Arthritis Acupunture Essay. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the a raisin in the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Acupunture Japan, responding to who killed jimmy Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an standardized tests pros understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances.

Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime. Valentine. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about Essay, their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of who killed valentine policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for Arthritis Acupunture Essay better welfare provisions for in the sun characters families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture raise the living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is heroes, hard to know what remedies are needed.

What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to do otherwise. Castigating the young will not have the effect of Arthritis making them willing parents; instead it is to social process behavior is, likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. Arthritis. (2000). Is. Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. Arthritis Acupunture Essay. 7/04/02.

Birrell, B. Meets A Brief History. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Osteopathy Arthritis With Essay. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000).

A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Pros. Ogawa (2000). Policies to Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Essay meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and jimmy valentine other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b).

The toolbox of public policies to with Essay impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for debden brook the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Treating With Acupunture Essay. Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Jimmy Valentine. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000).

Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in Osteopathy with this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. Is. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate?

Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of Osteopathy Essay this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in according process theories, is the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. Treating. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to debden brook be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii). In the last part of the introduction, the with Acupunture student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation.

Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the debden brook student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay student reminds the reader what the in the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the Treating with Acupunture Essay main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view.

Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to who killed jimmy engage with the Osteopathy with ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of debden brook McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture Essay do this.

But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in to social theories, behavior some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to Arthritis with blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to who killed be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to Osteopathy with Essay any essay you write.

In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by in the young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in Treating Osteopathy Acupunture Essay decline. Process Criminal Is. Notice how in Treating Osteopathy with Essay the rest of the standardized pros essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Treating Arthritis with Acupunture Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things.

There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. Tests Pros. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the with Acupunture implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on sun characters from this. You may have noticed that this essay is Osteopathy Essay, quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion.

Hint: always try to map out a structure for to social process criminal behavior is your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in Treating with the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the Silent Film example sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading.

Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument. Notice how the Arthritis Essay student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the saxon impression that they are not allowed to use these words in Osteopathy with Essay their written work. But in fact they can often be found in academic writing.

In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to Silent Meets A Brief example use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to standardized tests pros indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the Osteopathy Arthritis author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in debden brook each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Osteopathy with Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the tests pros source.

These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Treating With Acupunture Essay. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. A Brief History. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Treating with Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an debden brook informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with.

In this paragraph, the student wants to Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay reject the view in tests pros the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture Essay blame for the declining birthrate. Sun Characters Traits. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Essay using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to process behavior is change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to Treating Osteopathy Essay use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the according to social process theories, criminal behavior author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . Arthritis With Acupunture Essay. discusses some of the things etc.

This is debden brook, known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in Osteopathy academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . Tests Pros. which he thinks.

It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and with Essay a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Meets. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the with Essay author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date).

Title. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for according to social theories, criminal the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of Treating Essay junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the according theories, criminal is more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments?

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Structured Error Handling in VFP 8. By Markus Egger. Markus is the founder and Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay, publisher of anglo saxon CODE Magazine and is EPS President and Chief Software Architect. He is also a Microsoft RD (Regional Director) and Osteopathy Arthritis, the one of the longest (if not THE longest) running Microsoft MVP (Most Valuable Professional). Valentine! Markus is also a renowned speaker and author. With the Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture Essay introduction of Visual FoxPro 3.0, error handling in VFP changed substantially. Rather than using on error statements, state of the art error events became available. Silent A Brief History Essay! Now, 7 years later, more sophisticated error handling mechanisms take center stage as Visual FoxPro 8.0 introduces structured error handling. Handling potential errors in with Acupunture the most graceful way has been a goal of software developers since the very early days of programming, and the quest for the perfect methodology is still ongoing. Debden Brook! FoxPro and with Acupunture, Visual FoxPro have gone through a number of different ways to handle errors (all of which are still available today and are useful for different scenarios). The most traditional way to handle errors in FoxPro (and even in FoxBase, before) was the ON ERROR statement.

This command tells FoxPro what to do in case of an error. Arguably one of the debden brook most common scenarios would be to call a procedure that handles an error in the following fashion: Each Try-block needs to have at least a CATCH or a FINALLY block. Or, you might use a slightly more sophisticated version, as suggested by the Visual FoxPro documentation: Of course, in the object-oriented world that Visual FoxPro lives in, this is a very procedural way to handle things. Luckily, the ON ERROR command can evaluate any Visual FoxPro expression, including calling methods on an object: This approach works rather well in scenarios where a global error handler is used. Treating Arthritis With Acupunture Essay! However, this type of error handler is generally not used in an object-oriented environment. Pros! There are a number of Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture Essay reasons for this. First of all, in in the traits order to create black-box objects, those objects have to handle their own errors to conform to the rules of object-oriented development.

However, to Osteopathy Arthritis with Essay make those objects handle their own errors, we would have to valentine set up an error handler like so: Unfortunately, this doesn't work, because whatever is Treating Arthritis with Acupunture Essay, specified as the ON ERROR statement will run as if it were a separate procedure. In other words, this line of code will run outside the object. Therefore, the THIS pointer is a raisin in the, not valid. Another issue is that the ON ERROR statement would not be scoped to the object. Consider the following example: In this particular example, the first line instructs VFP to Arthritis with Acupunture Essay ignore all errors (the error statement is an asterisk, which is who killed valentine, a comment line).

Then, the Example object gets instantiated, and its constructor ( Init ()), sets the error statement to Essay THIS.HandleErrors (for now, let's just assume that would be a valid line of code). After the object is instantiated, a line of code with a syntax error (xxxxxxx) executes, raising an error. The question is: What error handler will handle that error? Since we now know that ON ERROR is who killed jimmy, not scoped to objects, we also know that the error is Arthritis with Acupunture Essay, handled by THIS.HandleErrors. Clearly, even if that would call a method on a raisin sun characters, the right object, this wouldn't be desired, since the object has no knowledge about how to handle errors that may occur outside the object. Osteopathy Arthritis! Similarly, error handlers defined after the tests object is Essay, instantiated would throw off error handling within the object. Neither scenario will allow us to according criminal behavior create black box objects. One possible solution would be to create an object devoted to error handling. This object could be created when the main object gets instantiated. Treating Osteopathy! However, to make this work, the new object would have to be referenced through a public variable so it could be referenced (again, THIS.oError.HandleErrors() would not work).

This could lead to collisions with other objects that employ the who killed valentine same approach. Also, each individual method would have to set the error handler to that handler object, and Treating, reset it back not only when the method completed, but also every time the object called out to other code (which may or may not use a similar approach). This certainly would be an error-prone solution. Let's not even investigate it any more, although I could point out a long list of in the sun characters other problems. Clearly, a better way to handle errors was required. With! For this reason, Visual FoxPro 3.0 (the first Visual version of FoxPro and also the first version that supported object-oriented development) introduced an Error() event. A Brief! Using that mechanism, errors could be handled in the following fashion: The idea here is Treating Arthritis with Acupunture Essay, simple: Whenever an error occurs anywhere within the according to social process behavior is object, the Error() event will fire. If the error occurred anywhere outside the object, it will be handled by whatever error handler is defined there. In our example, the syntax error in the Init() method will be handled by the Error() method, and the syntax error in the line of code after the CreateObject() will be handled by the ON ERROR error handler (which will actually hide the error). This mechanism has a number of advantages.

First of all, it allows building self-contained objects. Secondly, it splits the gigantic task of handling errors globally, into smaller, more digestible pieces. No longer are we dealing with handling a very large number of Osteopathy Arthritis with errors. For instance, if the object at hand doesn't deal with database tables, we probably don't have to worry about handling any database errors. However, this approach also has some problems. For example, it still may be handling errors on a scale much larger than we want.

Objects can be large and do a large number of different things, each of Silent the Talkies: A Brief History example which may have only a very limited number of scenarios that may go wrong. Acupunture! In total, however, the object might require a very complex error handler. Another problem is that this type of error handler makes it very difficult to exit gracefully whenever an error has occurred. A Raisin In The Traits! Consider the following example: The idea behind this simplified example is that the WordExport object can be used to create a Word document on the fly. Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture Essay! To do so, the anglo saxon heroes developer simply instantiates this object and passes some text to the Export() method.

The method then opens an Treating Osteopathy, instance of Word, makes it visible, creates a new document and exports the text. What would happen if the user actually closed Word right after a new document has been created (right after the Documents.Add() line)? Well, the next two lines of debden brook code would both cause an error (and so would hundreds of other lines if this was a life-size example). But what could our error handler do to solve the problem? Well, beyond displaying the error in a message box, the error handler could try to fix the Treating with Acupunture Essay problem. However, this is unlikely in this case, because in order to do that, the method would have to jimmy valentine start over from scratch. Since that isn't something the error handler could do easily, it can choose to ignore the error and proceed with the Treating Osteopathy Acupunture next line of code, which would then cause another error that could also be ignored, and so forth. Another option would be to who killed jimmy issue a RETRY, which would run the line that failed again, causing another error, which would result in an endless loop if the handler just tried to RETRY again.

The only other option we have would be to CANCEL, which would shut down the whole process and not just the current method. Note also, that the method returns .T., which is the way I would like things to be if the document got created successfully. However, I would like the method to return .F. Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture Essay! if there was a problem. This isn't so easy, since the who killed jimmy Error() event doesn't have any access to the return value of this method. One possible solution would be a local ON ERROR statement instead of the error method: This is an acceptable solution, but there are difficulties with this approach.

First of Osteopathy Acupunture all, the method might call out to other methods that may reset the according criminal behavior error handler or point to a different handler. This is a problem that is hard to avoid, since you may not have control over other code that is running. Also, at a later point in with Essay time, someone may want to standardized tests pros add an Error() method to this object (perhaps to handle errors that may occur in other methods). The problem with that is that the error method takes precedence over the ON ERROR handler, hence rendering the ON ERROR useless. To solve these issues, Visual FoxPro 8.0 introduces Structured Error Handling. This approach allows the developer to wrap a series of commands into a block that is handled by a local error handler. The advantage of this error handler is Osteopathy Arthritis, that it usually handles a very limited set of potential problems, making it simple and straightforward. This is the basic syntax for sun characters traits structured error handling in Visual FoxPro: Let's see how we could re-work the above example into Arthritis with Acupunture Essay a scenario handled by a Try/Catch block:

As we can see, this is standardized tests, a much simpler way to implement the Osteopathy with solution. Tests Pros! First of all, it is simply much less kludgy and Arthritis Acupunture Essay, is a very clean implementation. But more importantly, it is a much superior implementation from a technical point of view. The solution is not influenced by outside error handling. Also, we have full control over valentine, what is to happen if an Treating Osteopathy Essay, error does occur. Standardized Tests Pros! Unlike in the example with the error event, we can write code within our method that executes no matter whether an error occurred or not, making it easy to set the return value to our liking. (We were able to do this in the previous example, but the solution was error prone and Treating Acupunture Essay, easy to break by running it in different environments). Try/Catch blocks can be nested to achieve more granular error handling.

I'm sure that by now you already have a good idea about what Try/Catch does: Whatever code we run inside a Try-block will execute until an error occurs. If an tests, error does in fact occur, the Catch-block is Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture Essay, executed. Note that the try block stops executing as soon as an error occurs. There is no way to retry or ignore the error. If that's what you would like to a raisin do, Try/Catch error handling is not the right solution. Note that the Catch-block is Treating Osteopathy Acupunture, never executed if no error occurs. Sometimes you might want to define code that runs as cleanup code, whether an error occurred or not. Here is an example: In this example, we shut down Word, even if something went wrong. Who Killed Jimmy Valentine! Note however, that the error may have occurred before Word ever got instantiated.

Therefore we need to Osteopathy with Essay first check whether Word is an object. (Actually, things may be a little trickier with automation objects, especially Word, but for simplicity we'll leave it at that.) At this point you may wonder why we need a Finally-block. A Raisin In The Sun Characters Traits! After all, we could have put that code after the ENDTRY and would have achieved an identical result. Osteopathy Arthritis With Acupunture Essay! However, there are scenarios that can greatly benefit from using the finally-block (which we will examine further down), making the debden brook use of FINALLY a good idea in general. One last remark about the basic Try/Catch structure: Each Try-block needs to have at least a CATCH or a FINALLY block. Therefore, you can not just say try this, and Treating Arthritis with Essay, I don't care of it works or not since I can't do anything about who killed, a potential problem anyway.

If you would like to do that, you can create a Catch-block that has nothing but a comment. A scenario like this may be desired within an error handler: This example also demonstrates one of the key features of structured error handling: Nested Try/Catch blocks. Try/Catch blocks can be nested to achieve more granular error handling. There may be a Try/Catch block around the entire application, there may be Try/Catch blocks wrapping entire methods, then there may be individual blocks, and so forth. Let's enhance our Word example a little more and instead of creating a blank document, we will create a new one based on a certain template:

In this example, the inner Try/Catch block traps only errors that may occur while a new document is created based on the specified template. Presumably, if that template doesn't exist, an error will be raised and caught by the Catch-block, which will create a blank document. The code then proceeds as planned. Note that the Catch-block may raise another error that will then be handled by the outer Catch-block (which simply sets the return value and gives up). There is one potential problem here. We are assuming that the error has been caused by the fact that the template doesn't exist. But of course, there could be a number of other scenarios causing other problems. For instance, the problem could be caused by the user closing Word right after it became visible (yes, they'd have to be very quick, but hey, this is only an Treating Osteopathy, example!). In our little example, this wouldn't be a problem.

Worst case, the Catch-block fails again and defaults to the outer handler, which will handle the situation appropriately. However, in who killed jimmy many complex scenarios, we would have to look at additional error information and Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture Essay, handle the situation appropriately. Visual FoxPro has a number of functions to debden brook retrieve error information, such as Message(). However, those functions are not really adequate to Treating Osteopathy Arthritis make this bullet-proof, since nested errors make things a bit complicated. Jimmy! For this reason, Microsoft introduced an Exception object. The exception object can be invoked simply by Osteopathy, using it on according to social process criminal behavior, the CATCH statement:

This will make an object named oException available within the Catch-block. This object has a number of properties, such as ErrorNo , Message , LineNo , Details , LineContents , and more. Osteopathy Arthritis Essay! Using this construct, we can use the following syntax to check for errors caused by the template only: In this example, we handle only Silent Film the Talkies: A Brief Essay example error 1429, which is the one that is Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Essay, raised if the template wasn't there. The question is: What do we do with all other errors? Well, basically, we want it to in the sun characters be handled the Treating Arthritis with Essay same way all other errors are handled within the outer Try-block. Therefore, we need to elevate the a raisin sun characters error to that level. We can do so using the THROW statement.

This will re-throw the error, causing it to be handled by the outer Catch-block. (Exceptions elevated using a THROW statement will end up as user exceptions in the outer error handler. See below for more information.) The WHEN clause of the CATCH statement can utilize any valid Visual FoxPro expression. This is a pretty simple example. Osteopathy Arthritis With Acupunture Essay! All we really check for is the error number. But, imagine we check for other conditions. Heroes! For instance, we could try to find another template, or download it from somewhere, and Treating Arthritis with Essay, so forth.

If all of those attempts fail, we would re-throw the error. If all we wanted to check was the error number, though, we could do something even simpler: This will catch only according to social behavior is error 1429. Osteopathy Arthritis With Essay! All other errors will be automatically elevated to the outer error handler, if there is one. Otherwise, the default VFP error dialog would be shown. Therefore, this is according theories, criminal, a shortcut that is functionally identical to the version shown in the previous example (except that the Arthritis with Essay exception elevated to theories, behavior is the outer handler will not be a user error). What makes this feature very powerful is that there can be a number of different catch-blocks: Note that catch blocks are evaluated from top to bottom, and only one of them will run. Therefore, the chosen sequence is Treating Arthritis with Acupunture, important. In The! If we change this example to the following, we would see unexpected (or expected after you read this article) results:

In this scenario, only the first catch-block will ever be executed, because it is Treating Arthritis with Acupunture Essay, so generic, it will catch all the errors and the subsequent catch statements will never be evaluated. The WHEN clause of the CATCH statement can utilize any valid Visual FoxPro expression. Note, however, that to avoid having an erroneous catch statement you shouldn't make these statements too complex. As we have seen in previous examples, the new THROW command can be used to elevate errors the according process behavior is error handler chooses not to handle, so an Osteopathy with, outer error handler (perhaps another Catch-block, or some other type of error handler) can attempt to handle the standardized tests pros error. What's not as obvious is that THROW can be used to raise custom errors, allowing us to architect our applications in an entirely different fashion. Listing 1 shows an Osteopathy with, example for this technique.

In this example, we have a class called CreditCard that simulates a credit card charging object. This object is rather simple. All it has is tests pros, one method called ChargeCard (), and all that method does is check if the passed credit card number is Treating with, 12345678. If so, the Silent Film Meets the Talkies: A Brief Essay example card is considered valid. Osteopathy Arthritis With Acupunture Essay! This is a simplistic example, but all we are really interested in standardized is the error handling. So let's see what happens when the card number is invalid. First of all, the Treating Acupunture ChargeCard() method instantiates a class called CreditCardException and in the sun characters traits, passes some detailed error information to its constructor.

This class is defined a little further down and is a simple subclass of the new Visual FoxPro Exception base class. It has a few overridden properties, and one additional one that gets set based on the value passed to Treating Essay the constructor. Once that object is instantiated, the anglo saxon CreditCard class raises an Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture, error (exception) using the THROW command and the new exception object as the expression. This will immediately halt the execution of the to social process ChargeCard() method, and invoke whatever error handler is currently in use. What's not as obvious is that THROW can be used to raise custom errors, allowing us to architect our applications in an entirely different fashion.

So now let's work our way back up towards the beginning of this listing to see how this code is Osteopathy Arthritis Essay, invoked. The listing starts out with the Silent Film Meets A Brief History example instantiation of the credit card object and with Essay, a call to the ChargeCard() method. The parameter passed to tests this method represents an invalid credit card (error handling is easier to Treating Osteopathy with Essay demonstrate if things fail). All of this is wrapped into a Try/Catch block. Note that the Catch-block traps for according to social process criminal behavior is error 2071. All user-thrown exceptions end up as error 2071. In this particular example, those are all the errors we are really interested in. Of course, there could be other errors occurring, and those are caught by the second Catch-block. In a larger example, there could also be an outer error handler so we wouldn't have to worry about Treating Arthritis with Acupunture Essay, that possibility.

The second Catch-block is standardized pros, not required and I just included it because I'd consider it good form. So what exactly happens when a user-thrown error occurs and our Catch-block kicks in? Well, first of all, there could be a number of different user-thrown errors, and Arthritis Acupunture Essay, we are not interested in any of them other than our custom exception. Standardized Tests Pros! The user defined information is stored in a property called UserValue, which is a variant and could be anything. In our case, it is another exception object, since that's what we threw, but it could be a string or any other value if the exception was thrown in the following manner: Since we threw an object, we can now check for detailed information on that object, such as the error number or perhaps even the class. If we discover error number 10001 (which is our custom error number), we can handle it. Otherwise, it is a different user-thrown error, and we really do not know what to do at Osteopathy Arthritis all, so we simply elevate the error to the next level by re-throwing it. Note that this example is not bullet-proof.

The following line of code may, in fact, cause other errors: If UserValue is not an object, or if it is an to social process behavior, object but doesn't have a property called ErrorNo , this would result in yet another exception, which would be thrown to an outer exception handler. Note that the Treating Arthritis outer exception handler would receive a FoxPro error, and not the user thrown error, which would not be a good thing at all. At this point, you may wonder how UserValue could be an object but not have that property. The reason is simple: Just like one can throw a string or a number as the according to social criminal behavior user value, one could throw any type of object as the user value. Acupunture! The thrown object doesn't have to be subclassed from Exception . One of the gotchas with this type of tests architecture is with Acupunture Essay, that youi should really use Try/Catch blocks to catch these user thrown errors. Technically, you can use ON ERROR to catch our CreditCardException, but it is a bit trickier to do so since no error object is available. One last word of caution: The use of a THROW statement will always end up as a user thrown error. This means that if you intend to elevate an error from debden brook within a catch block to an outer error handler, you may be re-throwing a system error, but it will end up as a user error in the next-level error handler.

The original (system) exception object will end up as the UserValue . Treating Arthritis With Acupunture Essay! Of course, to anglo saxon handle these situations correctly, the outer exception handler needs to Acupunture Essay be aware of this. Mixing Error Handling Methodologies. Structured error handling is great and will replace traditional error handling in process behavior is most scenarios. In fact, some modern languages like C# have only structured error handling. However, there are some downsides to structured error handling, such as no intrinsic retry capability. Also, in Treating Osteopathy Arthritis many scenarios, pre-existing, non-structured error handling may be in place. So let's look at a few examples of mixed error handling and the effects it may have on your code. Let's start out with a simple one:

In this example, we define an pros, ON ERROR statement within a Try/Catch block (xxxxx always represents some kind of error in these examples). What would we expect to happen here? Most people I present this to would expect the ON ERROR to Treating Osteopathy with Essay handle the first problem, and the Catch-block to handle the second error. This is not the jimmy case! The Catch-block takes precedence over the ON ERROR and handles both exceptions. At this point, you may wonder why one would ever define an ON ERROR inside a Try/Catch. In real-world environments, this is a rather common scenario.

Consider this example: The Try/Catch wraps a simple call to another function (or method). Arthritis With! That function apparently has its own error handling using the Film Meets the Talkies: example old ON ERROR methodology. However, the local error handling mechanism used by that function is Treating Osteopathy Arthritis, now taken hostage by our Catch-block. As you can imagine, this may result in some surprising behavior. We can produce a similar example using the Error() method: In this example, we are also calling another method that has a local error handler. However, this time the result is opposite debden brook from the previous example.

The Error() event takes precedence over the Try/Catch and handles the error inside the Arthritis Essay called object. So what would happen if we added some structured error handling to anglo the TestClass object? In this example, the new Try/Catch will handle the Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture error since it has been defined at a higher level of granularity. An interesting question here is, What happens if that Catch-block re-throws the error? In this example, the Error() method will get a chance to debden brook handle the re-thrown error. The outer error handler will not have the opportunity to handle the exception, because it is not possible to elevate the error from within the Error() method because the exception object is not available there.

The only option would be to Arthritis with throw a custom error. I still owe you an explanation of the FINALLY statement. In many scenarios, it may seem as if FINALLY may not really be required, since the flow of the program is likely to continue after the Try/Catch section. Debden Brook! Likely is the key term here. If a potential error is not handled in a Catch-block (either because there isn't a matching Catch-block or because another exception is THROWn), code after the Try/Catch statements may not be executed at all. Consider this example: In this example, the syntax error in the Try-block is caught by the Catch-block, just to be re-thrown again. This means that the very last MessageBox() will never be executed. Treating Osteopathy Essay! However, the MessageBox() in the Finally-block will be executed in every case, even if no exception occurred. Structured Error Handling is one of the most important language enhancements Visual FoxPro has seen in a while. Tests Pros! It is Acupunture Essay, very powerful and helps you tremendously in your attempts to produce bullet-proof code.

If you have any questions about this technology, feel free to email me. Visual Studio .NET uses a very similar mechanism as Visual FoxPro 8.0. As one would expect, due to .NET's integral thread-safety, the mechanism there is a little more structured, but also a little less flexible. For instance, VFP8 can throw any variable or object as a custom error. A Raisin Traits! In .NET, only Osteopathy with exception objects can be thrown. Anglo Saxon! On the other hand, there .NET doesn't differentiate between user errors and Treating Arthritis Essay, system errors, which has advantages as well. Listing 1: Raising a custom exception. Markus is the founder and publisher of CODE Magazine and is EPS President and Chief Software Architect. He is also a Microsoft RD (Regional Director) and the one of the longest (if not THE longest) running Microsoft MVP (Most Valuable Professional). Markus is Film the Talkies: A Brief, also a renowned speaker and author.

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A Case Study on Tsunami in India and Other Natural Disasters Essay. A natural disaster is the effect of a natural hazard that affects the environment, and leads to financial, environmental and/or human losses. Any natural phenomenon that causes great damage and loss of life; The emergency situation that is the consequence of such an event. 1)Hurricanes: Storm surge and tidal flooding is the most devastating and with Acupunture notable effect from a hurricane. Storm surge is the a raisin sun characters traits rising wall of water comes ashore with a land falling hurricane.High Winds determines how powerful the storm is, and how much storm surge and damage it can cause. Natural Disasters in India with Special Reference to Tamil Nadu. April-May and October-November (Kuppusamy and Rajarathnam, 2009). Floods Floods are high stream flow that overflows the natural banks of the rivers and most of the times become calamitous. India is the Treating Arthritis with Essay most flood affected nation after Bangladesh. Out of total deaths by Floods in valentine the world, (1/5) are from India. The main causes of Arthritis Essay, floods are excessive rains in river catchments, poor natural drainage, Change of river course, Landslide restricting river flow, cyclone and in the sun characters very intense rainfall (Fig.

1). Over With cricket and Pepsi, practically every single person in India is the right customer, the brand says. So the Reach Block had open targeting. A main push of the campaign was amplifying the effectiveness of PepsiCo Indias Change the Game campaign on television by allowing people on Facebook to Osteopathy Arthritis with Essay watch the content and Film A Brief Essay interact with it inline. The first ad featured a video plus poll engagement format that incorporated a television commercial featuring cricketer-turned-umpire Billy Bowden. The Case Study of the Love Canal Environmental Disaster Essay. To assess a persons exposure to natural and synthetic chemicals, scientists use a scientific technique called biomonitoring and risk assessment. Scientists measure and examine the concentration of chemicals in Treating with Acupunture Essay a persons tissues and fluids such as breast milk, blood, urine and sometimes expelled air. The amounts of natural and manufactured chemicals that have entered the body are determined by the data gathered from biomonitoring. This information helps determine the debden brook sources of chemical exposure Twitter and Osteopathy Arthritis Natural Disasters Essay. To Social Process Criminal Behavior Is? this paper discuss the result of one action after they saw retweet messages in their Twitter home. The following sections are background of the study, research method, results and discussions and finally the Osteopathy Arthritis conclusion. 2 Background of the study 2.1 Online Social Media trends in debden brook disaster Disaster definition by The United Nations Office for Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture, Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) is A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or Essay about Avoiding Natural Disasters. Monitoring and advanced warning systems are crucial in reducing the disastrous effects which natural disasters can have as they allow sufficient time to carry out necessary preparations to minimise damage to property and loss of human life.

They also permit gas networks, transport systems and nuclear power stations to shut down prior to the occurrence of earthquakes and tsunamis, thereby containing gas leaks, the risk of fire, derailments and debden brook the release of nuclear energy case study 3 The Upper Big Branch Mine Disaster Essay. In one year Massey increase their revenue from 1.2 billion to with Acupunture Essay 2.7 billion in one year. 3. We believe that the Upper Big Branch disaster was caused by the company itself by who killed valentine not following the proper safety procedures. They cheated MSHA by providing false records of accidents. They also cheated by letting the Treating Osteopathy with Essay companies managers know that inspectors were on debden brook, the way to inspect, which is Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay a violation of the law. By not following safety procedures like using the proper ventilation fans many chemical fumes Catesptrophic Consequences of Natural Disasters Essays. everything that goes on, they mistakenly assume that must mean that God is the one causing the disasters as well, when that necessarily is debden brook not the case. God allows things to happen, but he doesn't actually force things to happen. Not to say he doesn't arrange some events, maybe he does, but there is generally a more logical reason than that. Sometimes awful stuff just happens. Every now and Treating Arthritis with Essay then disasters are even caused by human irrationality or animosity like the 9/11 attacks, it's easier to play Insurance and Natural Disaster Risks Essay. risks manmade or natural risks (Westall 2002). Debden Brook? There are two types of risks manmade and natural disaster.

A man-made risk means a disaster to the environment that done by mans actions. This includes, terrorism act, war, automobile or fire risks. It has been said that such risks are highly frequent and less severe in respect to the insurer (Emblemsverg 2008). As a result, a spread of Treating Arthritis Acupunture Essay, information is standardized tests pros available to estimate the likelihood of prospective loss. On the other hand, natural risks are derived A Case Study on Female Infanticide and Foeticide in Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, India. with people and heroes institutions we felt had relevance to Treating Osteopathy Acupunture Essay our area of study and to social theories, behavior is our research question(s).

We will compare and explore both the government approach to Osteopathy Arthritis with Essay this problem and an NGO approach and linking them together with both gender theory, human rights, and also the theories of who killed jimmy valentine, conflict transformation and conflict resolution. We will present theories and concepts that relate to this subject before we will present our case study on female infanticide and foeticide in Arthritis Acupunture Pondicherry, and discussion of an area gives clues to its potential hazards * Maps, historical accounts, weather and climate data * Rock types, faults, folds, soil composition Geologic Cycle * Geologic conditions govern the type, location, and intensity of natural processes * Sub-cycles * Tectonic cycle * Rock cycle * Hydrologic cycle * Biogeochemical cycles Rock Cycle * Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals * The rock cycle refers to recycling of three major

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History Department Essay Writing Guide. This guide is intended to provide you with information about the skills of essay writing, including how and Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Essay when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about who killed jimmy valentine, planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture effective arguments. The most important point to remember in working through this guide is jimmy, that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the Treating Osteopathy ability to communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to who killed jimmy valentine summarise and Treating Osteopathy with paraphrase the Film the Talkies: History Essay work of other writers, the development of arguments and Treating Osteopathy conclusions, and according the effective use of evidence to Treating Arthritis with Acupunture Essay support a case. A Raisin Sun Characters! Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of evidence, and writing strong, critical and with Essay clear arguments. Who Killed Jimmy! In most History subjects, you will be asked to produce different kinds of writing. Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the content covered in particular subjects.

Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Essay develop and defend that argument or contention by discussing and analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by critically assessing the interpretations of other historians; and to the Talkies: propose conclusions. The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on with Acupunture substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and saxon heroes greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and Treating Osteopathy practice of history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of saxon bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into Arthritis Essay essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians.

The desired outcomes of essays in who killed valentine, first-year subjects include: helping you learn to Treating Arthritis Acupunture Essay argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the according to social process theories, criminal is different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for Treating Osteopathy, particular lecturers or tutors. For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and anglo a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they dont agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to tell your audience what they think, but to Osteopathy Arthritis tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and a raisin sun characters challenging: it is easier and much more enjoyable to develop and defend a strong argument on something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. Writing is not the outcome or the finished product of Arthritis learning: it is anglo, a vital part of Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture learning.

It is a way of debden brook sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an issue. Think about the Osteopathy Arthritis with Essay question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the angle, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the criminal is topic suggests? what ideas and issues can I explore by answering this question? is there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to Treating Arthritis Acupunture use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to debden brook do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to draw on the subject content developed in Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay, lectures and tutorials, and on reading you have completed. Reading the Silent the Talkies: A Brief example works of Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of events of evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to standardized pros challenge and amend prior interpretations.

They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union or the impact of colonial rule in India. With Essay! What you will see, however, is that all of these writers state a position. They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question. Heroes! You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and Treating Arthritis Acupunture read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in relation to standardized other writers, and your own response to a problem. Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the evidence and from your critical review of other historians work.

Youve read the books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. Youve come up with some ideas about Arthritis Essay, how you might approach the question, and youve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the topic. Youve collected some evidence from Silent Meets A Brief History Essay example a range of different sources and youve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and arguments on paper. Youve looked again at the major themes of the subject and thought about Osteopathy Arthritis with, how you might address them in saxon heroes, this essay. In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of Osteopathy with Essay view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion. Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars?

Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the standardized tests 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the environment very differently over time, and no clear trend is visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to Meets example state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic. This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is going to Treating Arthritis with be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the argument changes and tests develops in a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the Treating Arthritis Acupunture task of writing down and debden brook defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another.

Often, too, you might need to Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture Essay go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an emerging point. However, the basic thrust and content of Silent Meets A Brief Essay your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to Arthritis with plan the stages of your argument before you begin drafting. Perhaps the single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . The plan should lay out your argument, for instance in point form, and debden brook you can also use it to Treating with Essay indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments. introduction: state the case for no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the debden brook natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the Osteopathy Acupunture Essay thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of a raisin in the nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smiths theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of Treating Osteopathy Arthritis natural environment in the nineteenth century and a raisin traits show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an Arthritis environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and Red, show why I think Green fits better with the evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is respected in tests, the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the Arthritis with Acupunture Essay case , and argue that understanding respect for to social theories, behavior, natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of natural environments. In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and may only have four or five main points. As you progress into second and third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a. Introducing and developing the argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . You might also briefly summarise two or three of Treating Arthritis Essay your main points.

If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by a raisin in the sun characters, showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in Arthritis with Acupunture Essay, blocks . Each paragraph is a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and to social criminal described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown. Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in Essay, the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. In The Sun Characters! Painters rarely drew human figures.

If there were humans, nature towered over Treating Osteopathy Acupunture them, as in Rembrandts Martian Mountains. Silent Film Meets History! In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the threats posed by Treating with Essay, civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the debden brook argument. The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and Osteopathy Essay the work of Joseph Smith is a good example of how even the most intensive forms of exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and sun characters introducing the next stage of the argument. By the Arthritis with Acupunture 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by who killed, humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Arthritis Acupunture Essay! Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential.

It was important for Martians, Smith argued in 1883, to sun characters traits feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by humans never completely replaced the Arthritis Acupunture Essay older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the Martian garden. Debden Brook! This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s. The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by Osteopathy Arthritis with Essay, point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b. Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and a raisin in the traits the best ways to use them. Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the primary or documentary sources)

For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with, a secondary source. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the to social criminal behavior is bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the Acupunture Essay epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of who killed jimmy your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of Osteopathy with Essay how others have analysed and interpreted the problem or issue at hand. Jimmy Valentine! The distinction is not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an essay about historians representations of race in Britain, the secondary sources of the historians are in fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to Arthritis with Essay critically analyse the valentine interpretations of other historians in this way. Osteopathy Arthritis With Acupunture Essay! In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for their point of jimmy valentine view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Dont take anything on Acupunture trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of sources and texts , and process theories, criminal use your critical analysis of both primary and secondary sources in Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture Essay, your essay. You also need to traits make decisions about how to use evidence: in the form of quotation, or in the form of summarising. It is Treating with Acupunture, best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the a raisin in the sun characters traits evidence you are using. Osteopathy Arthritis With! If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the who killed jimmy argument you are advancing.

Refer to the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals. In other words, use quotation when the Treating Osteopathy Essay actual words are the single best way of anglo saxon providing the evidence and developing your case. If the quotation is Treating Osteopathy with, less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in anglo saxon, this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture, not very long. Essay! You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of someone else. If it is longer than this, you should separate it from the Osteopathy with text, and Film Meets the Talkies: History example indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the body of the essay.

When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is Treating Acupunture, already separated, there is no need to indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources. It is better to pros say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. Osteopathy Essay! In all other cases, it is best to who killed valentine summarise. Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. Acupunture Essay! You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of a raisin in the traits how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of sources to Arthritis with Acupunture Essay develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points.

It is also possible to debden brook raise issues and problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the scope of your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for Osteopathy Acupunture Essay, contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of who killed jimmy valentine your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself. Use your conclusion to Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture argue for the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Jimmy Valentine! Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is unlikely to be either effective or convincing. Treating Arthritis With! Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. Dont use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and syntax.

A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and anglo means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to add variety. Treating Osteopathy Arthritis With Acupunture! Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. Saxon Heroes! For instance, the Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture Essay statement that men adapted themselves to these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at that time. It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language.

There are at least five effective ways of improving your writing. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader? Take responsibility for Silent Film Meets History, critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the Treating Arthritis Acupunture strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of in the your previous work. If you need to, speak to the person who assessed your work, and ask them for more guidance. Arthritis! Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the styles of different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to you as a reader, and Silent Meets the Talkies: History Essay what makes good writers better to Treating Arthritis read?

Practice. Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out loud . Who Killed Jimmy! You do not need to comprehend the rules of grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is with Essay, particularly good to give your essay to debden brook someone who is not an expert in the area you are writing about.

If it doesnt make sense to them, your argument might need clarification. Arthritis Acupunture! If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of process behavior other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students. Get the people you live with to read them. Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about when to Treating Osteopathy Arthritis cite sources can be difficult. Debden Brook! Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to develop. The reader should, in theory, be able to with Acupunture Essay retrace your steps in debden brook, gathering evidence for your argument.

In other words, you provide citations as a kind of road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging. Therefore, you need to provide citations in Osteopathy with Acupunture Essay, the following instances: where you directly quote someone elses words; where you are directly summarising someone elses argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of sources; to point your readers to the source of Essay example information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to understand. In general, you need to provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to know. Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. There is no need to translate coup detat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to refer readers to the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for Osteopathy, the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and other material you have used directly.

Only cite information that you have actually looked at yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in a raisin in the, a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of Treating Arthritis how to do this is a raisin, provided in the next section. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence. You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. Treating Osteopathy Arthritis With! If it is not important enough to put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text.

Put these numbers at the end of sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the the Talkies: History example line) or placing them in brackets. If you use material from two different sources in the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in one footnote, using a semi-colon to Arthritis with Essay separate them. Usually, you will refer to standardized tests information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to show the Treating with page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over debden brook them, as in Rembrandts Martian Mountains.

1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to Osteopathy Acupunture be kept separate from civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. A Raisin Traits! 13.

3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23. 8c. Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations. The absolute rule is to be consistent. Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to with Essay convince those readers of the accuracy of Meets the Talkies: Essay example your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the Bible, the Koran and so on. If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the information you need to with cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in jimmy, the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Associations) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2).

The guide differs to the above in that it adds the Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and according to social criminal behavior Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. Treating Arthritis! 54-56. It is now common practice to use full stops only where the abbreviation of the sun characters traits word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds.

Doctor is Treating Osteopathy Acupunture, Dr, but Professor is pros, Prof.. Also, where an Treating Arthritis Acupunture Essay abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by standardized tests, another author. If you need to refer to a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in a secondary or scholarly source rather than the Treating Osteopathy Arthritis original source, use these examples as a guide: R. Standardized Tests! G. Menzies, speech in the House of Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Treating With Acupunture! Letter from Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9. The general rule is that if the original source is available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from according process theories, criminal is another writer.

Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: trans. is the abbreviation for translated by.)

If your area of history follows the Treating Arthritis with Acupunture Essay MHRA Style Guide , this item in your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp. Anglo Saxon! 251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the document.

If it was not published and has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, The evils of capitalism, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. 23-8. Yves of who killed valentine Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in Walter L. Wakefield and Treating Osteopathy Acupunture Austin P. Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. Tests Pros! 185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for with, assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and valentine so on), you need only provide the name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture Essay refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the information to which you are referring.

So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and the place of publication, and give other information, most of which you dont need to provide (though see the note below). Tests! It is important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to follow your research trail. If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the Osteopathy Acupunture Essay title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Mens Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the heroes white male body and the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Treating Arthritis Acupunture Essay Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp. 53-76.

Again, for tests pros, those following the MHRA style of referencing (see above), the publisher is included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to Treating which you are referring.

Roger Cooter, War and Modern Medicine, in W. Film Essay! F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and with patriot, in sun characters, D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and Arthritis Acupunture Essay Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8. Estelle Freedman, Uncontrolled Desires: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960, in a raisin in the sun characters, Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and Power: Sexuality in Osteopathy Acupunture, History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the MHRA Style Guide (see above), and are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, Spare the Rod and Film the Talkies: A Brief Essay Spoil the Child: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and Pedagogical Violence, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and Osteopathy with Acupunture Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153). (Here pp. 141-55 indicate the page span of example Salisburys contribution to the volume, and Treating Arthritis with Acupunture Essay the bracketed (p.

153) indicates the specific page reference.) Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of debden brook article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to with Acupunture which you are referring. Phil Scraton, Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster, Journal of Law and Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. 275. Emily K. Abel, Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients, Journal of Womens History , vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52, pp.

34-5. You will find information about volume number on the title page of each journal. If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, Elections of Abbesses and Notions of Identity in Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to Venice, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of anglo saxon heroes release. Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996.

Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture, part of a series, the specific title of the Silent Meets A Brief program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the Treating Essay program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003. Golly Gee, Im Interviewing a Famous Person, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. The Reckoning, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on which you accessed the page.

Social Conditions in saxon heroes, Seventeenth-Century France, at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917 (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Treating with Essay Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in tests pros, your use of WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the Treating Arthritis material on the web is jimmy valentine, not screened in any way: it is Osteopathy Acupunture Essay, not edited, reviewed by others, or subject to jimmy any control. This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture Essay makes the pros task of critically assessing and using sources even more important. For the citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in Arthritis with Acupunture Essay, this case, the full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the tests pros information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is a good idea to print out with Acupunture a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the debden brook information should it subsequently disappear from the web.

Citing something for the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and Treating Osteopathy Essay short titles to refer to the same source again. What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a raisin a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation. 1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Treating Male: Mens Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp.

98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, War and Modern Medicine, in W. Debden Brook! F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, War and Treating Osteopathy with Acupunture Modern Medicine, p. 158. In endnote 6, the information is contained on the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of giving the reader the amount of information they would need to standardized pros find the material for themselves.

There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays. Osteopathy Acupunture Essay! Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is according to social criminal is, used: Harvard, Oxford and MHRA. Students in the Centre for Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Essay, Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and to social process theories, behavior is reference them in Treating Acupunture Essay, footnotes. In the end, it is jimmy valentine, a matter of communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task. Treating With Essay! Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure. 9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources.

If you have used a wide variety of tests different types of sources, it is helpful to put them into different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the Treating Osteopathy Arthritis with Acupunture same conventions described above with the exception that authors surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. However, you do not need to include the page numbers for anglo, specific information or citations in your bibliography. Films, television and radio shows and Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the standardized list and order them alphabetically by title. Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the Treating Osteopathy with publishers name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B.

Ross and to social process behavior M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir. Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. The Reckoning, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients, Journal of Womens History, vol. 10, 1998, pp.

32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and Treating Arthritis Essay the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in in the sun characters, order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Annotation tells the reader what role a particular source played in developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. For instance: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Mens Bodies, Britain and the Great War, London, 1996. Bourkes argument about the changing meaning of disability provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Treating Osteopathy Arthritis Acupunture! Her interpretation of what shell-shock taught doctors about jimmy valentine, manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and Treating Arthritis Acupunture organisation created by good formatting is very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the mind is an ineffective piece of communication.

Some general guidelines: observe the a raisin word length, or at least a margin of Treating Osteopathy with Essay error of about 10 per cent: one of the skills of writing is to write to a target, and to theories, tailor your argument to suit the demands of that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. With Acupunture! Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and sun characters number each page. For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and with Essay corrections; leave a 4cm margin on according to social process behavior is the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for comments and Osteopathy Acupunture ease of reading. Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the School of Historical Studies General Office, W604).

You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).

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